June 24, 2024

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How to become a Judge in India

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how to become a judge in india

Are you the one looking forward to a detailed article on how to become a Judge in India. Then, this is the right choice for you. In this article, I have shared detailed information on How to Become a Judge in India – Eligibility criteria, role & responsibilities, the judiciary system in India, employment opportunities, career scope, and salary of the judge.

Judge is one of the most prestigious jobs in India. Judge is a white-collar job and at the topmost position. He/she is solely responsible to give judgment in case of justice. Let us now have a look at all the detailed information.

About Judge

Judiciary is the most important pillar of the administration. If you choose to be the one then you are on the right way to become a Judge. They are the ones who take decisions on the hearing of the cases. They have responsibilities both in the courtroom and outside it also. Judges give the final verdict of any case. Judges have lots of responsibilities, respect, and honor in this position. 

The trial needs to be held without any partiality by Judges. The ones who hear the proceeding need, to be honest, fair, and trustworthy for their work. 

Role & Responsibilities of a Judge

The responsibility of a judge needs to be carried out very carefully as the small mismatch of things will make a blunder in the case. Here are the responsibilities of the Judges that you should know very well.

  • It’s the duty of the Judges to hear the words of the one who witnesses the case
  • He presides the court either alone or in a panel to conclude.
  • He handles the criminal, constitutional, federal, and other variety of cases
  • The allegations of both the parties that are the prosecutor or the defender need to be heard with patience. 
  • The judge acts as a referee to hear the session.
  • In any case if needed then Judges can ask for Police investigation.
  • Take the right decision based on the hearing to punish the guilty.
  • He is the one who informs the defendants about their rights. 
  • The extent of internship needs to be levied by the Judges at the time of trial.
  • They rule on the motion and admissibility of the case.
  • With cases the duty or role of the Judge differs. 
  • They are also responsible for permitting arrest and search warrants when required.

Judiciary System in India 

The judiciary system in India is very relevant as it is based on proof and pieces of evidence. Let’s discuss each of the courts in detail and brief about it.

Supreme Court

  • It acts as an apex court and the highest law-making body and its judgment needs to be accepted by all even by the lower courts and subordinate courts.  
  • Supreme Court has diverse power in three ways that are advisory, original, and appellate. Judicial Review is the important role that where Supreme Court comes into play.
  • Currently, there are 31 judges along with the Chief Justice of India. 
  • Supreme Court sought out the disputes between federal states and provinces or against the High Court.
  • It listens to the case which is referred by the president and the Supreme Court is bound to advice on it.

High Court

  • The High Court deals in the state judicial system. High Court will look into all the cases related to state. In case High Court appeals the Supreme Court to look into the case then only Supreme Court will intervene.
  • This comes after the Supreme Court of India but acts as superior to subordinate court. It has only original jurisdiction of union territory or each state. 
  • It is the highest court in the state that deals in the article 214-231 in the Indian Constitution. 
  • There can be the setup of one High court for two or more states.

Subordinate Courts

  • Subordinate Court works under the High Court at District and lower levels. 
  • For the recruitment in the Judicial Service of the state, an exam is conducted by State Public Service Commission.
  • In each district, there are subordinate courts which include revenue courts, civil courts, and criminal courts.  

How to become a Judge in India

how to become a judge in india

To become a Judge in India you need to fulfill some eligibility criteria. The eligibility criteria are listed below.

Eligibility Criteria 

The eligibility criteria according to Lower Courts, Higher Courts, and Supreme Court are listed below. Read all the three criteria carefully with eligibility.

1. Lower Courts 


The person should be a citizen of India and must have 7years of experience as an advocate to become a judge

Age Limit

The age of the candidate to be between 21-35 years

Educational Qualification

The applicant must have an LLB degree of three years or an integrated degree from a recognized university.

2. Higher Courts


The aspirant needs to a citizen of India with 10 years of experience in a judicial office or 10 years of expertise as an advocate of a high court 

Age Limit

A High Court Judge will retire at the age of 62 years. 

Educational Qualification

  • The applicant should have finished their LLB degree of three years or five years as per the choice of the candidate.
  • Even LLM degree students can fulfill the criteria to be a judge of the High Court
  • Some of the other skills to be a Judge are 
  • To have good listening and communication skills
  • Analytical and Mediation idea or skills
  • Must have the logical and thinking capability
  • The candidate should not be biased in any case

3. Supreme Court


The aspirant should be a citizen of India and at least for five years worked as High Court Judge or be an advocate for 10 years in High Court

Age Limit

The age limit to be a judge of a Supreme Court for retirement is 65years

Educational Qualification

  • The candidate with LLB or LLM degree is mandatory to be a judge of a Supreme Court.
  • Some of the skills that make them a good Judge are the same as that of a High Court

Eligibility Criteria For Judge

Candidate Age In Years Experience
The candidate who have completed the Graduation Law 21-25 He/ She have an LLB or LLM degree with up to 55% mark
Attorney, Pleader, or Advocate 21-35 The aspirant with a Law degree or experience in the field of advocate or attorney in the subordinate or High Court
Member of Mantralaya or legal assistance 21-45 The candidate must have three years of experience after completing the degree
High Court or Subordinate court ministerial staff 21-45 The candidate must have three years of experience after completing the degree

Exam for Judge With Syllabus

To be the judge of a district one needs to appear for judicial service examination. Every state has its own exam to recruit the candidate. The exam is conducted in two phases and an Interview.

The two phases of the exams are listed below.

Preliminary Examination

The exam is of 150 marks with 2.5 hours. This is the first exam on the list of exams to become a judge.


The syllabus of the preliminary exam is as follows is as listed below.

  • Current affair
  • General Knowledge
  • Good in Aptitude or reasoning
  • Contract law and tort law
  • Constitutional Law
  • Good in the English Language
  • IPC, CPC, and The Indian Evidence Law
  • Specific Relief Act
  • Law of trust
  • Commercial Law 
  • Land Revenue Code and many more

After the preliminary exam, only the candidate is ready to appear for the mains examination. They have to submit the 10th, 12th, and bachelor’s degree certificates online on the respective state website to verify the candidate information and process further.

Mains Examination

It compromises four papers each of 100 marks and the time duration is 2 hours. After qualifying preliminary exam you are eligible for the Mains exam. This is a subjective type of exam.

Paper 1English

In this, the questions are from Grammar, Essay Writing, and other precise writing

Paper 2General Knowledge

It includes the aptitude and the objective questions

Paper 3Law

The third paper includes the Civil Procedure Code, Constitution of India transfer of property, and many more

Paper 4Law

This paper has the Indian Evident Act, Indian Penal Code, Law of Torts, and many more


This is the last round of the exam which includes mental ability, Current affairs, general knowledge, and many more.

After clearing the three rounds of the exam with a good score then only the names are displayed on the respective state website.

Books & Study Material

Here is some of the study material jotted below to prepare for the exam are- 

  • The author Frederick C. Hicks of the book Men and Books in Law
  • How Judges think by the writer Richard Posner
  • Indian Contract Act by R.k. Bangia
  • A book by J.D Jain for Limitation Act

Appointment of Judges in India

Supreme Court

The President appoints the Supreme Court judges after consulting the collegiums. The collegiums consist of four supreme court’s senior-most judges along with the Chief Justice of India.

High Court

High Court Judges are appointed by the President of India after consultation with the Chief Justice of India and the Governor of the state. 

It is headed by the chief justice.

District Court

The Governor in consultation with the Chief Justice of the high court of the concerned state to appoints the judges of the district

Related Course to become Judge

There are three courses to become a Judge in India.

Integrated LLB

The Integrated LLB is of five years and the fee for this course varies from Rs 30,000 to 3, 00,000 per annum.

LLB Course

LLB course is of three years and the fee for such course is Rs 22,000 to Rs2, 50, 000 per annum.

LLM Course

LLM course is done after the completion of LLB degree and the fee is between Rs 50, 000 to Rs 5, 00, 000 per annum.

Job Role

Once you get your degree there is a lot of job role to play and earn for your survival. Here is the job role listed below.

  • High Court Judge
  • District Judge
  • Supreme Court Judge
  • Civil Judge
  • Sessions Judge
  • Author

Employment Opportunities

Employment opportunities are available for judges of the Indian Constitution. The three tiers of the constitution are namely Union Judiciary, Subordinate, and state judiciary to get jobs in this.

There is certain requirement to get this position and need to satisfy certain age limit and educational criteria too. The other thing that matters the most is the experience in the given field. The more experience you have the better cases you get to solve.

Also Read

Top Recruiting Courts in India

The degree and experience of the candidate need to display in some reputed courts. Here is the list of top recruiting courts in India that are 

  • Delhi High Court
  • Haryana District and Sessions Court
  • Supreme Court
  • Sashastra Seema Bal
  • Rajasthan High Court
  • Uttarakhand Public Service Commission
  • Ministry of Law & Justice

Salary of Judge

The basic salary of the Supreme Court and High Court is Rs 2, 50, 000 per annum with perks and allowances. The average salary of the Subordinate court is Rs 50,000 per annum with some allowances.

Job Role

Once you get your degree there is a lot of job role to play and earn for your survival. Here are a few job roles that are listed below.

  • High Court Judge
  • District Judge
  • Supreme Court Judge
  • Civil Judge
  • Sessions Judge
  • Author

Top Colleges to study the course of Judge 

  • National Law school of Indian University, Bangalore
  • Rizvi Law College, Mumbai
  • Law College, Dhanbad
  • Rajiv Gandhi National University of Law, Patiala
  • National Law University, Delhi
  • Government Law College, Mumbai


To conclude, this was all about how to become a Judge in India. Hope these guiding words give a proper direction to become a Judge. For any more related queries quote your question in the comment box. Also, share your experience of exams. Waiting to interact with you all.

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